Nelson Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was born in 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, then a part of South Africa's Cape Province. Mandela became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the African National Congress (ANC) in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. He was arrested in 1962, convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island.
Following his release in 1990, Mandela led the ANC in negotiations with the ruling National Party to end apartheid and establish multi-racial elections in 1994, in which he was elected President. Nelson Mandela was the President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black President of South Africa and the first to be elected in a fully representative democratic election.
As President, Mandela worked to combat poverty and inequality and promote reconciliation between South Africa's racial groups. He also sought to improve the lives of the country's black majority by implementing policies such as affirmative action and land reform.
During his Presidency, Mandela also sought to improve South Africa's international relations and played a crucial role in promoting peace and stability on the African continent. He also worked to secure a peaceful transition in neighboring Namibia and helped to broker a power-sharing agreement in Burundi. After one term, he stepped down from Presidency.
Nelson Mandela retired from politics in 1999. He had previously announced his intention to retire before the end of his term, stating that he wanted to ensure a peaceful and orderly transition of power.
After his retirement, Mandela continued to advocate for social causes, particularly those related to children, education, and the fight against HIV/AIDS. He also remained a respected figure in South Africa and internationally and continued to be involved in various initiatives to promote peace and reconciliation.
Mandela also established the Nelson Mandela Foundation, a non-profit organization focusing on issues such as poverty, HIV/AIDS, and education. He also continued to advocate for reconciliation and peace and played a role in various peace initiatives throughout Africa and the world. Unfortunately, Mandela passed away on December 5, 2013, at 95, but his legacy continues to be celebrated and honored worldwide.